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Amlodipine

Antihypertensive Agents
CATEGORIES

Antihypertensive Agents, Vasodilator Agents, Calcium Channel Blockers, Antianginal Agents


ALIASES

Acerycal, Afiten, Agen, Albis, Alea, Alneta, Altensil, Amaloris, Amelior, Amesos, Amlarrow, Amlator, Amlipine, Amlobe, Amlober, Amlobesyl, Amlocard, Amlode, Amlodigamma, Amlodilan, Amlodinova, Amlodipin Accord, Amlodipin Actavis, Amlodipin Alternova, Amlodipin Arrow, Amlodipin Aurobindo, Amlodipin BMM Pharma, Amlodipin Bluefish, Amlodipin Hexal, Amlodipin IVAX, Amlodipin Jubilant, Amlodipin Krka, Amlodipin Orifarm, Amlodipin Orion, Amlodipin Ranbaxy, Amlodipin STADA®, Amlodipin Sandoz, Amlodipin Winthrop, Amlodipin ratiopharm, Amlodipine, Amlodipine 1 A, Amlodipine Accord, Amlodipine Actavis, Amlodipine Alternova, Amlodipine Apotex, Amlodipine Arrow, Amlodipine Aurobindo, Amlodipine BMM Pharma, Amlodipine Bluefish, Amlodipine Essential Pharmaceuticals, Amlodipine GL, Amlodipine Genericon, Amlodipine Hexal, Amlodipine IVAX, Amlodipine Jubilant, Amlodipine Krka, Amlodipine Medical Valley, Amlodipine Medochemie, Amlodipine Orifarm, Amlodipine Orion, Amlodipine Ranbaxy, Amlodipine STADA®, Amlodipine Sandoz, Amlodipine Sopharma, Amlodipine Teva, Amlodipine Vitabalans, Amlodipine Winthrop, Amlodipine ratiopharm, Amlodipine/Valsartan Actavis, Amlodipine/Valsartan Apotex, Amlodipine/Valsartan Denk, Amlodipine/Valsartan EG, Amlodipine/Valsartan Genericon, Amlodipine/Valsartan HCS, Amlodipine/Valsartan Krka, Amlodipine/Valsartan Mylan, Amlodipine/Valsartan STADA, Amlodipine/Valsartan Sandoz, Amlodipine/Valsartan/Hydrochlorothiazide Krka, Amlodistad, Amlodno, Amlor, Amloratio, Amlori, Amlorine, Amlotan, Amlozek, Amló, Amoratio, Antacal, Apo-Amlo, Arplexam, Asbima, Astucor, Astudal, Atordapin, Balzak, Belfor, Bevacomb, Bigital, Bivis, Caduet, Camdero, Candesartan/Amlodipine Krka, Cantensio, Capenon, Caramlo, Cardilopin, Co-Dalnessa, Concor, Copalia, Coveram, Coverdine, Coverlam, Dafiro, Dalnessa, Dalneva, Dicartil, Dipperam, Dironorm, Egiramlon, Exforge, Exforge®, Flutensif, Framsyl, Giant, Hipres, Imprida, Istin, Istolde, Konverge, Lipertance, Lodip, Lodopin, Lopin, Lopridam, Milodimyl, Mixor, Nartivivancombi, Natrixam, Nelod, Nopidin, Nordip, Normodipine, Norvas, Norvasc, Norvasc®, Olmesartan/Amlodipine Accord, Olmesartan/Amlodipine EG, Olmesartan/Amlodipine Krka, Olmesartan/Amlodipine Sandoz, Olmesartan/Amlodipine Teva, Olssa, Orcal, Perindopril/Amlodepine Krka, Perindopril/Amlodepine Stada, Perindopril/Amlodepine Teva, Perivasc, Pharex Amlodipine, Piramil, Prestalia, Prestance, Priamlo, Ramdacordia, Rameam, Ramelso, Ramipril/Amlodipine Actavis, Ramipril/Amlodipine Adamed, Ramipril/Amlodipine Apotex, Ramipril/Amlodipine Aristo, Ramipril/Amlodipine EG, Ramipril/Amlodipine Glenmark, Ramipril/Amlodipine Sandoz, Ramomark, Reaptan, Rosmela, Rosuvastatin/Amlodipine Krka, Rosvaden, Sanoral, Sevikar, Sobycombi, Statriam, Takawita, Telassmo, Teldipin, Tenloris, Tenox, Tezefort, Tonanda, Tonarssa, Triplixam, Tritace Combi, Triveram, Twynsta, Valsamix, Valsimia, Valtensam, Valticrom, Viacoram, Viacorlix, Vidonorm, Wamlox, Zabart, Zenicamo, Zorem, botinero, Норваск


SUBSTANCES

amlodipine, amlodipine besylate, amlodipine maleate, amlodipine mesilate, amlodipine mesylate monohydrate


ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN: MODERATE
Amlodipine is a long-acting 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It acts primarily on vascular smooth muscle cells by stabilizing voltage-gated L-type calcium channels in their inactive conformation. By inhibiting the influx of calcium in smooth muscle cells, amlodipine prevents calcium-dependent myocyte contraction and vasoconstriction. A second proposed mechanism for the drug’s vasodilatory effects involves pH-dependent inhibition of calcium influx via inhibition of smooth muscle carbonic anhydrase. Some studies have shown that amlodipine also exerts inhibitory effects on voltage-gated N-type calcium channels. N-type calcium channels located in the central nervous system may be involved in nociceptive signaling and pain sensation. Amlodipine is used to treat hypertension and chronic stable angina.

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IN SCOPE
MODERATE

REFERENCES

  1. Santos, L. H. M. L. M., M. Gros, S. Rodriguez-Mozaz, C. Delerue-Matos, A. Pena, D. Barcelóand M. C. B. S. M. Montenegro (2013). Contribution of hospital effluents to the load of pharmaceuticals in urban wastewaters: Identification of ecologically relevant pharmaceuticals. Science of The Total Environment 461–462 (0): 302-316.
  2. Godoy, A.A., Kummrow, F., Pamplin, P. (2015) Occurrence, ecotoxicological effects and risk assessment of antihypertensive pharmaceutical residues in the aquatic environment - A review. Chemosphere 138, 281-291.
  3. European Medicines Agency. European public assessment reports (EPAR).
  4. Goodpoint. Jämförande bedömning av miljörisk vid användning av kalciumantagonisterna amlodipin och felodipin. Stockholm: Goodpoint; 2018.

SOURCES

  1. Drugbank, The DrugBank database is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug data with comprehensive drug target information.
  2. PubChem, PubChem is the world's largest collection of freely accessible chemical information. Search chemicals by name, molecular formula, structure, and other identifiers
  3. ECHA, The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) is the driving force among regulatory authorities in implementing the EU's groundbreaking chemicals legislation for the benefit of human health and the environment as well as for innovation and competitiveness.
  4. EMA, The mission of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) is to foster scientific excellence in the evaluation and supervision of medicines, for the benefit of public and animal health in the European Union (EU).
  5. EU watch-list, Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2018/840 of 5 June 2018 establishing a watch list of substances for Union-wide monitoring in the field of water policy pursuant to Directive 2008/105/EC of the European Parliament.
  6. Umweltbundesamt, Since its founding in 1974, the German Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt – UBA) has been Germany’s main environmental protection agency.
  7. Naturvårdsverket, A public agency in Sweden that is responsible for environmental issues. The Agency carries out assignments on behalf of the Swedish Government relating to the environment in Sweden, the EU and internationally
  8. Läkemedelsverket, The Swedish Medical Products Agency (MPA) is the Swedish national authority responsible for regulation and surveillance of the development, manufacturing and marketing of drugs and other medicinal products.
  9. FASS, The Swedish environmental classification of pharmaceuticals at www.fass.se has now been running since October 2005. Since then a large amount of environmental information of pharmaceuticals has been published.
  10. Janusinfo, Janusinfo is providing drug information to support healthcare professionals in their everyday work. The website is the electronic means of communication of the Drug Therapeutic Committee and the Health and Medical Care Administration of the Stockholm County Council, Sweden.