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Clotrimazole

Antifungal Agents
CATEGORIES

Antifungal Agents, 14-alpha Demethylase Inhibitors, Anti-Infective Agents, Local


ALIASES

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SUBSTANCES

clotrimazole


ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN: MODERATE
An imidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of antimycotic activity. It inhibits biosynthesis of the sterol ergostol, an important component of fungal cell membranes. Its action leads to increased membrane permeability and apparent disruption of enzyme systems bound to the membrane. [PubChem]

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MODERATE
The T-value in the score for hazard refers to chronic toxicity. Underlying data for P, B and T comes from Fass for Canesten (clotrimazole) (downloaded 2013-06-25). No new environmental information for clotrimazole is published on Fass.se (2018-09-05).

Below information from Fass environmental information for Canesten (clotrimazole) (downloaded 2013-06-25)


Hazard
Persistence: "CO2 evolution test, guideline, C.4 C (6)). Test results 0% degradation in 28 days (guideline 79/831/EEC)."

Bioaccumulation: "Log POW 4.1 (EU guideline 92/69/EC, A.8). Since log POW 4.1, the substance has high potential for bioaccumulation."

Chronic toxicity: There is NOEC for 3 trophic levels, lowest NOEC for crustacean (Dapnia magna) 10 microg/L.

PBT/vPvB assessment
clotrimazole is not PBT/vPvB.

Risk
PEC/PNEC is based on sales data in Sweden in year 2011. PEC/PNEC = 0.013 which gives the risk insignificant.

Pharmaceutical analyses of water in Stockholm County
Clotrimazole has been detected in treated wastewater and surface water in Stockholm County in the last five years (2012–2016). The average reduction rate was 96 %.

Report Pharmaceutial residues in the Stockholm aquatic environment
Clotrimazole has been detected in incoming and outgoing water from Swedish wastewater treatment plants.

REFERENCES

  1. SLL. Sammanställning av läkemedelsprovtagningar - Bearbetning av regional försäljningsstatistik av läkemedel samt datamaterial från Stockholms läns landstings mätprogram för läkemedelssubstanser i vattenmiljö, 2012–2016.
  2. Stockholm Vatten. Läkemedelsrester i Stockholms vattenmiljö. 2010. ISBN 978-91-633-6642-0.