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Doxycycline

Anti-Bacterial Agents
CATEGORIES

Anti-Bacterial Agents, Antimalarials, Tetracyclines


ALIASES

Actidox, Adjusan, Altidox, Ambroxol, Atridox, Bassado, Centidox, Deoxymykoin, Doksivibra, Dosil, Doxakne, Doxam, Doxat, Doxiclat, Doxipil, Doxiten, Doxitidin, Doxy, Doxy M, Doxy S+K, Doxy-CT, Doxybactin, Doxybene, Doxycyclin-Ratiopharm SF, Doxycycline 1A Pharma, Doxycycline 2care4, Doxycycline AL, Doxycycline AbZ, Doxycycline Apotex, Doxycycline Arrow, Doxycycline Beral, Doxycycline Bigran, Doxycycline Denk, Doxycycline EQL Pharma, Doxycycline Ebb, Doxycycline G Gam, Doxycycline Heumann, Doxycycline Mylan, Doxycycline Orifarm, Doxycycline PB, Doxycycline Pannonpharma, Doxycycline Pfizer, Doxycycline Ratiopharm SF, Doxycycline Sandoz, Doxycycline Stada, Doxycycline Teva, Doxycycline Vitabalans, Doxycyklin 2care4, Doxycyklin EQL Pharma, Doxycyklin Ebb, Doxycyklin Orifarm, Doxyderm, Doxyderma, Doxydoc, Doxydyn, Doxyferm, Doxyhexal, Doxylan, Doxylets, Doxylin, Doxynor, Doxypharm, Doxyprotect, Doxytrex, Efracea, Farmdoxi, Jenacyclin, Ligosan, Medomycin, Microdox, Miraclin, Monodox, Morgidox, NicAzelDoxyKit, Nu-Doxycycline, Ocudox, Oracea, Oraycea, Periosan, Periostat, Proderma, Remycin, Rexilen, Supracyclin, Tenutan, Tolexine, Unidox, Vibracina, Vibramicina, Vibramycin, Vibramycin Monohydrate, Vibranord, Vibratab, Vibravenosa, Vibrox


SUBSTANCES

doxycycline, doxycycline caragenate, doxycycline hyclate, doxycycline hydrochloride, doxycycline monohydrate


ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN: HIGH
A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity. Animal studies suggest that it may cause less tooth staining than other tetracyclines. It is used in some areas for the treatment of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria (malaria, falciparum). [PubChem]

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VERIFIED EFFECT
HIGH

This substance is an antibiotic (also called, anti-bacterial agent). All antibiotics are suspected to cause antibiotic resistance and we should therefore try to limit releasing it to Nature via our wastewater streams.

Some key facts from WHO

  • Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest threats to global health. food security, and development today
  • Antibiotic resistance can affect anyone, of any age, in any country.
  • Antibiotic resistance occurs naturally, but misuse of antibiotics in humans and animals is accelerating the process.
  • A growing number of infections – such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, gonorrhoea, and salmonellosis – are becoming harder to treat as the antibiotics used to treat them become less effective.
  • Antibiotic resistance leads to longer hospital stays, higher medical costs and increased mortality.

REFERENCES

  1. Gao, P., Ding, Y., Li, H., Xagoraraki, I. (2012). Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in a municipal wastewater treatment plant: Mass balance and removal processes. Chemosphere 88, 17-24.
  2. Yang, S., Cha, J., Carlson, K. (2005). Simultaneous extraction and analysis of 11 tetracycline and sulfonamide antibiotics in influent and effluent domestic wastewater by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr. A 1097, 40-53.
  3. Yang, S. Carlson, K.H. (2004). Solid-phase extraction–high-performance liquid chromatography–ion trap mass spectrometry for analysis of trace concentrations of macrolide antibiotics in natural and wastewater matrices. J Chromatogr. A 1038, 141-155.
  4. Thomas, K., Dye, C., Schlabach, M., Langford, K.H. (2007). Source to sink tracking of selected human pharmaceuticals from two Oslo city hospitals and a wastewater treatment works. J. Environ. Monit., 1410-1418.
  5. Wahlberg, C., Björnelius, B., Paxeus, N. (2015) Läkemedelsrester i Stockholms Vattenmiljö, Stockholm Vatten.
  6. UNESCO and HELCOM (2017) Pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment of the Baltic Sea region - A status report. UNESCO Emerging Pollutants in Water Series – No. 1, UNESCO Publishing, Paris.
  7. Nadia, N., Velazquez, A., Islas-Flores, H., Sanjuan-Reyes, N., Martínez, M., García, S., Gómez-Oliván, L., (2017). Pharmaceuticals and other pollutants as solid waste from hospitals and their toxic effects on aquatic organisms. ESEN, Vol. 6, 171-201
  8. Toprak, E., Veres. A., Michel, JB., Chait, R., Hartl, D., Kishony, R., Evolutionary paths to antibiotic resistance under dynamically sustained drug selection (2011), Nature Genet. 44, 101–105
  9. European Medical Agency - National registers of authorised medicines
  10. pCure Product Definition
  11. pCure Standard Dissolving Test

SOURCES

  1. Drugbank, The DrugBank database is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug data with comprehensive drug target information.
  2. PubChem, PubChem is the world's largest collection of freely accessible chemical information. Search chemicals by name, molecular formula, structure, and other identifiers
  3. ECHA, The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) is the driving force among regulatory authorities in implementing the EU's groundbreaking chemicals legislation for the benefit of human health and the environment as well as for innovation and competitiveness.
  4. EMA, The mission of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) is to foster scientific excellence in the evaluation and supervision of medicines, for the benefit of public and animal health in the European Union (EU).
  5. EU watch-list, Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2018/840 of 5 June 2018 establishing a watch list of substances for Union-wide monitoring in the field of water policy pursuant to Directive 2008/105/EC of the European Parliament.
  6. Umweltbundesamt, Since its founding in 1974, the German Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt – UBA) has been Germany’s main environmental protection agency.
  7. Naturvårdsverket, A public agency in Sweden that is responsible for environmental issues. The Agency carries out assignments on behalf of the Swedish Government relating to the environment in Sweden, the EU and internationally
  8. Läkemedelsverket, The Swedish Medical Products Agency (MPA) is the Swedish national authority responsible for regulation and surveillance of the development, manufacturing and marketing of drugs and other medicinal products.
  9. FASS, The Swedish environmental classification of pharmaceuticals at www.fass.se has now been running since October 2005. Since then a large amount of environmental information of pharmaceuticals has been published.
  10. Janusinfo, Janusinfo is providing drug information to support healthcare professionals in their everyday work. The website is the electronic means of communication of the Drug Therapeutic Committee and the Health and Medical Care Administration of the Stockholm County Council, Sweden.