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Estradiol

Estrogens
CATEGORIES

Estrogens, Contraceptive Agents, Anti-menopausal Agents


ALIASES

Activelle, Aerodiol, Agofollin, Alora, Alpicort, Angeliq, Angemin, Armonil, Betatabs, Calidiol, Cetura, Clifemme, Climara, Climaston, Climen, Climodien, Climodiene, Clionara, Cliovellan, Cliovelle, Crinohermal fem, Cyclabil, Cyclo-Progynova, Delestrogen, Dermestril, Dermestril-Septem, Dienogest/Estradiol Aristo, Divigel, Divina, Duogestan, Duova, Epheilia, Epiestrol, Eptausa, Esclima, Estalis, Estraderm, Estradiol 1A Pharma, Estradiol Wolff, Estradiolo, Estradot, Estradurin, Estrahexal, Estramon, Estreva, Estrifam, Estrimax, Estring, Estroclim, Estrodose, Estrofem, Estrogel, Eviana, Evopad, Evorel, Fem7, FemSeven, Femanest®, Femanor®, Femasekvens®, Fematab, Feminova, Femoston, Femostonconti, Femphascyl, Femsete Combi, Folivirin, Gelestra, Ginaikos, Gracial, Gynodian, Gynokadin, IOA, Indivina, Juvinelle, Klaira, Kliane, Klimodien, Klimonorm, Kliogest, Lafamme, Lenzetto, Levelyn, Linoladiol, Lyrelle, Menorest, Mericomb, Merigest, Merimono, Montadiol, Naemis, Neofolin, Noresmea, Novofem, Oesclim, Oestraclin, Oestring, Oestrodose, Oestrogel, Olaira, Pausogest, Prapanol, Progynon, Progynova, Provames, Qlaira, Sandrena, Sequidot, Sibilla, Sisare, Sprediol, Systen, Thais, Theralgan, Totelle Sekvens, Triaklim, Trisekvens, Trisequens, Trisequense, Trivina, Tulita, Vagifem, Velbienne, Vivelle, Wellnara, Zerella, Zoely, Zumenon, Östronara


SUBSTANCES

estradiol, estradiol 3-acetate, estradiol hemihydrate, estradiol valerate


ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN: HIGH
Generally refers to the 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries and the placenta. It is also produced by the adipose tissue of men and postmenopausal women. The 17-alpha-isomer of estradiol binds weakly to estrogen receptors (receptors, estrogen) and exhibits little estrogenic activity in estrogen-responsive tissues. Various isomers can be synthesized. [PubChem]

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VERIFIED EFFECT
HIGH

REFERENCES

  1. Tan, B. L. L., D. W. Hawker, J. F. Mueller, F. D. L. Leusch, L. A. Tremblay and H. F. Chapman (2007). Comprehensive study of endocrine disrupting compounds using grab and passive sampling at selected wastewater treatment plants in South East Queensland, Australia. Environ Int 33, 654-669.
  2. Braga, O., G. A. Smythe, A. I. Schafer and A. J. Feitz (2005). Fate of steroid estrogens in Australian inland and coastal wastewater treatment plants. Environ Sci Technol 39, 3351-3358.
  3. Servos, M. R., D. T. Bennie, B. K. Burnison, A. Jurkovic, R. McInnis, T. Neheli, A. Schnell, P. Seto, S. A. Smythand T. A. Ternes (2005). Distribution of estrogens, 17 beta-estradiol and estrone, in Canadian municipal wastewater treatment plants. Sci Total Environ 336, 155-170.
  4. Zorita, S., L. Mårtensson and L. Mathiasson (2009). Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals in a municipal sewage treatment system in the south of Sweden. Sci Total Environ 407, 2760-2770.
  5. Fernandez, M. P., M. G. Ikonomou and I. Buchanan (2007). An assessment of estrogenic organic contaminants in Canadian wastewaters. Sci Total Environ 373, 250-269.
  6. Martín, J., D. Camacho-Muñoz, J. L. Santos, I. Aparicio and E. Alonso (2012). Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plants: Removal and ecotoxicological impact of wastewater discharges and sludge disposal. J Hazard Mater. 239–240, 40-47.
  7. Bhandari, R., Deem, S., Holliday, D., Jandegian, C., Kassotis, C., Nagel, S., Tillitt, D., vom Saal, F., Rosenfeld, C., (2015), Effects of the environmental estrogenic contaminants bisphenol A and 17α-ethinyl estradiol on sexual development and adult behaviors in aquatic wildlife species, Gen Comp Endocrinol. Volume 214,195-219,
  8. Dammann, A., Shappell, N., Bartell, S., Schoenfuss, H., (2011), Comparing biological effects and potencies of estrone and 17β-estradiol in mature fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, Aquat Toxicol. Volume 105, 559-568.
  9. Seki, M. , Fujishima, S. , Nozaka, T. , Maeda, M. and Kobayashi, K. (2006), Comparison of response to 17β‐estradiol and 17β‐trenbolone among three small fish species. Environ Toxicol Chem 25, 2742-2752.
  10. Seki, M. , Yokota, H. , Maeda, M. and Kobayashi, K. (2005), Fish full life‐cycle testing for 17β‐estradiol on medaka (Oryzias latipes). Environ Toxicol Chem, 24: 1259-1266.
  11. Europeiska unionens officiella tidning. Kommissionens genomförandebeslut (EU) 2018/840 av den 5 juni 2018.
  12. Goodpoint. Prioritering av läkemedel med miljörisk inom SLL. Stockholm: Goodpoint; 2016. Rapport LS 2016–0634.
  13. Metcalfe CD, Metcalfe TL, Kiparissis Y, Koenig BG, Khan C, Hughes RJ et al. Estrogenic potency of chemicals detected in sewage treatment plant effluents as determined by in vivo assays with Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Environ Toxicol Chem. 2001;20:297-308.
  14. Gardner M, Jones V, Comber S, Scrimshaw MD, Coello-Garcia T, Cartmell E et al. Performance of UK wastewater treatment works with respect to trace contaminants. Sci Total Environ. 2013;456-457:359-69.
  15. D.G.J Larsson, M Adolfsson-Erici, J Parkkonen, M Pettersson, A.H Berg, P.-E Olsson et al. Ethinyloestradiol — an undesired fish contraceptive? Aquatic Toxicology 1999; 45 (2-3): 91-97.
  16. Fick J, Lindberg RH, Tysklind M, Larsson DG. Predicted critical environmental concentrations for 500 pharmaceuticals. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010;58:516-23.
  17. Friel PN, Hinchcliffe C, Wright JV. Hormone replacement with estradiol: conventional oral doses result in excessive exposure to estrone. Altern Med Rev. 2005;10:36-41.
  18. Stockholms läns landsting. Förteckning över miljöbelastande läkemedel med åtgärdsförslag framtagen inom ramen för SLL:s miljöprogram 2017–2021.
  19. European Medical Agency - National registers of authorised medicines
  20. pCure Product Definition
  21. pCure Standard Dissolving Test

SOURCES

  1. Drugbank, The DrugBank database is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug data with comprehensive drug target information.
  2. PubChem, PubChem is the world's largest collection of freely accessible chemical information. Search chemicals by name, molecular formula, structure, and other identifiers
  3. ECHA, The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) is the driving force among regulatory authorities in implementing the EU's groundbreaking chemicals legislation for the benefit of human health and the environment as well as for innovation and competitiveness.
  4. EMA, The mission of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) is to foster scientific excellence in the evaluation and supervision of medicines, for the benefit of public and animal health in the European Union (EU).
  5. EU watch-list, Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2018/840 of 5 June 2018 establishing a watch list of substances for Union-wide monitoring in the field of water policy pursuant to Directive 2008/105/EC of the European Parliament.
  6. Umweltbundesamt, Since its founding in 1974, the German Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt – UBA) has been Germany’s main environmental protection agency.
  7. Naturvårdsverket, A public agency in Sweden that is responsible for environmental issues. The Agency carries out assignments on behalf of the Swedish Government relating to the environment in Sweden, the EU and internationally
  8. Läkemedelsverket, The Swedish Medical Products Agency (MPA) is the Swedish national authority responsible for regulation and surveillance of the development, manufacturing and marketing of drugs and other medicinal products.
  9. FASS, The Swedish environmental classification of pharmaceuticals at www.fass.se has now been running since October 2005. Since then a large amount of environmental information of pharmaceuticals has been published.
  10. Janusinfo, Janusinfo is providing drug information to support healthcare professionals in their everyday work. The website is the electronic means of communication of the Drug Therapeutic Committee and the Health and Medical Care Administration of the Stockholm County Council, Sweden.