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Felodipine

Antihypertensive Agents
CATEGORIES

Antihypertensive Agents, Anti-Arrhythmia Agents, Vasodilator Agents, Calcium Channel Blockers, Dihydropyridines


ALIASES

Cardioplen, Delmuno, Feldíl, Felocor, Felodin, Felodipine 1A Pharma, Felodipine AL, Felodipine AbZ, Felodipine Actavis, Felodipine AstraZeneca, Felodipine Aurobindo, Felodipine CF, Felodipine Dura, Felodipine EuroGenerics, Felodipine Heumann, Felodipine Hexal, Felodipine Mylan, Felodipine Orifarm, Felodipine Ratiopharm, Felodipine STADA, Felodipine Sandoz, Felodipine Teva, Felodipine Zentiva, Felodipine-CT, Felodistad, Felogamma, Felogen, Felotens, Flodil, Folpik, Logimat, Logimax, Mobloc, Modip, Neofel, Parmid, Plendil, Presid, Preslow, Tazko, Triacor, Triapin, Triasyn, Unimax, Vachalpha


SUBSTANCES

felodipine


ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN: MODERATE
Felodipine is a long-acting 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (CCB)b. It acts primarily on vascular smooth muscle cells by stabilizing voltage-gated L-type calcium channels in their inactive conformation. By inhibiting the influx of calcium in smooth muscle cells, felodipine prevents calcium-dependent myocyte contraction and vasoconstriction. Felodipine is the most potent CCB in use and is unique in that it exhibits fluorescent activity. In addition to binding to L-type calcium channels, felodipine binds to a number of calcium-binding proteins, exhibits competitive antagonism of the mineralcorticoid receptor, inhibits the activity of calmodulin-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, and blocks calcium influx through voltage-gated T-type calcium channels. Felodipine is used to treat mild to moderate essential hypertension.

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VERIFIED EFFECT
MODERATE

REFERENCES

  1. UNESCO and HELCOM. 2017. Pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment of the Baltic Sea region – A status report. UNESCO Emerging Pollutants in Water Series – No. 1, UNESCO Publishing, Paris.
  2. VA-Kluster Mälardalen: Public database of micro-pollutants for wastewater treatment plants
  3. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 2008, ”Avloppsreningsverkens förmåga att ta hand om läkemedelsrester och andra farliga ämnen”, Report 5794
  4. Goodpoint. Prioritering av läkemedel med miljörisk inom SLL. Stockholm: Goodpoint; 2016. Rapport LS 2016–0634.
  5. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. Fick J, Lindberg RH, Kaj L, Brorström-Lundén E. Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2010. Subreport 3. Pharmaceuticals.
  6. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd Fick J, Lindberg RH, Fång J, Magnér J, Kaj L, Brorström-Lundén E. Screening 2014. Analysis of pharmaceuticals and hormones in samples from WWTPs and receiving waters. Rapport C 135.
  7. Fick J, Lindberg RH, Tysklind M, Larsson DG. Predicted critical environmental concentrations for 500 pharmaceuticals. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010;58:516-23.
  8. SLL. Sammanställning av läkemedelsprovtagningar - Bearbetning av regional försäljningsstatistik av läkemedel samt datamaterial från Stockholms läns landstings mätprogram för läkemedelssubstanser i vattenmiljö, 2012–2016.
  9. Stockholms läns landsting. Förteckning över miljöbelastande läkemedel med åtgärdsförslag framtagen inom ramen för SLL:s miljöprogram 2017–2021.
  10. Goodpoint. Jämförande bedömning av miljörisk vid användning av kalciumantagonisterna amlodipin och felodipin. Stockholm: Goodpoint; 2018.
  11. European Medical Agency - National registers of authorised medicines
  12. pCure Product Definition
  13. pCure Standard Dissolving Test

SOURCES

  1. Drugbank, The DrugBank database is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug data with comprehensive drug target information.
  2. PubChem, PubChem is the world's largest collection of freely accessible chemical information. Search chemicals by name, molecular formula, structure, and other identifiers
  3. ECHA, The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) is the driving force among regulatory authorities in implementing the EU's groundbreaking chemicals legislation for the benefit of human health and the environment as well as for innovation and competitiveness.
  4. EMA, The mission of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) is to foster scientific excellence in the evaluation and supervision of medicines, for the benefit of public and animal health in the European Union (EU).
  5. EU watch-list, Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2018/840 of 5 June 2018 establishing a watch list of substances for Union-wide monitoring in the field of water policy pursuant to Directive 2008/105/EC of the European Parliament.
  6. Umweltbundesamt, Since its founding in 1974, the German Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt – UBA) has been Germany’s main environmental protection agency.
  7. Naturvårdsverket, A public agency in Sweden that is responsible for environmental issues. The Agency carries out assignments on behalf of the Swedish Government relating to the environment in Sweden, the EU and internationally
  8. Läkemedelsverket, The Swedish Medical Products Agency (MPA) is the Swedish national authority responsible for regulation and surveillance of the development, manufacturing and marketing of drugs and other medicinal products.
  9. FASS, The Swedish environmental classification of pharmaceuticals at www.fass.se has now been running since October 2005. Since then a large amount of environmental information of pharmaceuticals has been published.
  10. Janusinfo, Janusinfo is providing drug information to support healthcare professionals in their everyday work. The website is the electronic means of communication of the Drug Therapeutic Committee and the Health and Medical Care Administration of the Stockholm County Council, Sweden.