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Ketoconazole

Antifungal Agents
CATEGORIES

Antifungal Agents, 14-alpha Demethylase Inhibitors


ALIASES

Abba, Adenosan, Apo-Ketoconazole, Aquarius, Botaderm, Daktarin, Dandrazol, Dermatin, Eberset, Folicalm, Fundan®, Fungarest, Fungoral®, Ilgem, Ket Med, Keto-Cure, Keto-Tis, Ketoconazole Abamed, Ketoconazole Actavis, Ketoconazole Apotex, Ketoconazole Aristo, Ketoconazole Arrow, Ketoconazole Aurobindo, Ketoconazole Aurovitas, Ketoconazole Biogaran, Ketoconazole Cinfa, Ketoconazole Cristers, Ketoconazole DR. MAX, Ketoconazole HRA, Ketoconazole J-C, Ketoconazole MK, Ketoconazole Mylan, Ketoconazole Zentiva, Ketoisdin, Ketokonazole Alternova, Ketokonazole Copyfarm, Ketokonazole Euromedicines, Ketokonazole Hasco, Ketokonazole Korhispana, Ketokonazole Pharmagenus, Ketokonazole Ratiopharm, Ketokonazole Teva, Ketokonazole VIR, Ketonova, Ketopin, Ketopine, Ketoson, Ketozol, Ketozolin, Kezol, Kontact, Medic Blue, Mikanisal, Neo-Egmol, Nizax, Nizoral, Noell, Nyoxep, Orifungal M, Oronazol, Panfungol, Sinazol, Spendor, Tedol, Terzolin, Triatop, Xolegel, Zoxin-med


SUBSTANCES

ketoconazole


ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN: MODERATE
Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients. [PubChem]

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VERIFIED EFFECT
MODERATE

REFERENCES

  1. Van De Steene, J. C., C. P. Stove and W. E. Lambert (2010). A field study on 8 pharmaceuticals and 1 pesticide in Belgium: Removal rates in waste water treatment plants and occurrence in surface water." Sci Tot Enviro 408, 3448-3453.
  2. Wahlberg C, Björnelius B, Paxeus N, Läkemedelsrester i Stockholms Vattenmiljö, Stockholm Vatten, 2015.
  3. UNESCO and HELCOM. 2017. Pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment of the Baltic Sea region - A status report. UNESCO Emerging Pollutants in Water Series – No. 1, UNESCO Publishing, Paris.
  4. Fent, K., Weston, A., Caminada, D. (2006) Ecotoxicology of human pharmaceuticals, Aquat Toxicol.,Volume 76, Issue 2, 122-159,
  5. Ankley, G. T., Jensen, K. M., Kahl, M. D., Makynen, E. A., Blake, L. S., Greene, K. J., Johnson, R. D. and Villeneuve, D. L. (2007), Ketoconazole in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas): Reproductive toxicity and biological compensation. Environ. Toxicol. Chem, 26: 1214-1223
  6. Hegelund, T. , Ottosson, K. , Rådinger, M. , Tomberg, P. and Celander, M. C. (2004), Effects of the antifungal imidazole ketoconazole on CYP1A and CYP3A in rainbow trout and killifish. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 23: 1326-1334
  7. Goodpoint. Prioritering av läkemedel med miljörisk inom SLL. Stockholm: Goodpoint; 2016. Rapport LS 2016–0634.
  8. SLL. Sammanställning av läkemedelsprovtagningar - Bearbetning av regional försäljningsstatistik av läkemedel samt datamaterial från Stockholms läns landstings mätprogram för läkemedelssubstanser i vattenmiljö, 2012–2016.
  9. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. Fick J, Lindberg RH, Kaj L, Brorström-Lundén E. Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2010. Subreport 3, B 2014 Pharmaceuticals.
  10. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd Fick J, Lindberg RH, Fång J, Magnér J, Kaj L, Brorström-Lundén E. Screening 2014. Analysis of pharmaceuticals and hormones in samples from WWTPs and receiving waters. Rapport C 135.
  11. Fick J, Lindberg RH, Tysklind M, Larsson DG. Predicted critical environmental concentrations for 500 pharmaceuticals. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010;58:516-23.
  12. European Medical Agency - National registers of authorised medicines
  13. pCure Product Definition
  14. pCure Standard Dissolving Test

SOURCES

  1. Drugbank, The DrugBank database is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug data with comprehensive drug target information.
  2. PubChem, PubChem is the world's largest collection of freely accessible chemical information. Search chemicals by name, molecular formula, structure, and other identifiers
  3. ECHA, The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) is the driving force among regulatory authorities in implementing the EU's groundbreaking chemicals legislation for the benefit of human health and the environment as well as for innovation and competitiveness.
  4. EMA, The mission of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) is to foster scientific excellence in the evaluation and supervision of medicines, for the benefit of public and animal health in the European Union (EU).
  5. EU watch-list, Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2018/840 of 5 June 2018 establishing a watch list of substances for Union-wide monitoring in the field of water policy pursuant to Directive 2008/105/EC of the European Parliament.
  6. Umweltbundesamt, Since its founding in 1974, the German Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt – UBA) has been Germany’s main environmental protection agency.
  7. Naturvårdsverket, A public agency in Sweden that is responsible for environmental issues. The Agency carries out assignments on behalf of the Swedish Government relating to the environment in Sweden, the EU and internationally
  8. Läkemedelsverket, The Swedish Medical Products Agency (MPA) is the Swedish national authority responsible for regulation and surveillance of the development, manufacturing and marketing of drugs and other medicinal products.
  9. FASS, The Swedish environmental classification of pharmaceuticals at www.fass.se has now been running since October 2005. Since then a large amount of environmental information of pharmaceuticals has been published.
  10. Janusinfo, Janusinfo is providing drug information to support healthcare professionals in their everyday work. The website is the electronic means of communication of the Drug Therapeutic Committee and the Health and Medical Care Administration of the Stockholm County Council, Sweden.