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Norethisterone

Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic
CATEGORIES

Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic


ALIASES

Activelle, Activelle®, Cliovelle, Estalis, Estalis Sekvens, Estalis®, Estalis® Sekvens, Eviana, Evorel® Micronor, Femanor®, Femasekvens®, Kliogest®, Mini-Pe®, Noresmea, Noriday, Novofem®, Orthonett® Novum, Primolut®-Nor, Sequidot®, Synfase®, Synfase® 28, Synphase, Triella, Trinovum, Trinovum®, Trinovum® 28, Trisekvens, Trisekvens®


SUBSTANCES

norethisterone, norethisterone acetate


ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN: HIGH
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of progesterone but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception. [PubChem]

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IN SCOPE
HIGH

REFERENCES

  1. Fent K. Progestins as endocrine disrupters in aquatic ecosystems: Concentrations, effects and risk assessment. Environ Int. 2015;84:115-30.
  2. Ellestad LE, Cardon M, Chambers IG, Farmer JL, Hartig P, Stevens K et al. Environmental gestagens activate fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) nuclear progesterone and androgen receptors in vitro. Environ Sci Technol. 2014;48:8179-87.
  3. Bain PA, Kumar A, Ogino Y, Iguchi T. Nortestosterone-derived synthetic progestogens do not activate the progestogen receptor of Murray-Darling rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) but are potent agonists of androgen receptors alpha and beta. Aquat Toxicol. 2015;163:97-101.
  4. Paulos P, Runnalls TJ, Nallani G, La Point T, Scott AP, Sumpter JP et al. Reproductive responses in fathead minnow and Japanese medaka following exposure to a synthetic progestin, Norethindrone. Aquat Toxicol. 2010;99:256-62.

SOURCES

  1. Drugbank, The DrugBank database is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug data with comprehensive drug target information.
  2. PubChem, PubChem is the world's largest collection of freely accessible chemical information. Search chemicals by name, molecular formula, structure, and other identifiers
  3. ECHA, The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) is the driving force among regulatory authorities in implementing the EU's groundbreaking chemicals legislation for the benefit of human health and the environment as well as for innovation and competitiveness.
  4. EMA, The mission of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) is to foster scientific excellence in the evaluation and supervision of medicines, for the benefit of public and animal health in the European Union (EU).
  5. EU watch-list, Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2018/840 of 5 June 2018 establishing a watch list of substances for Union-wide monitoring in the field of water policy pursuant to Directive 2008/105/EC of the European Parliament.
  6. Umweltbundesamt, Since its founding in 1974, the German Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt – UBA) has been Germany’s main environmental protection agency.
  7. Naturvårdsverket, A public agency in Sweden that is responsible for environmental issues. The Agency carries out assignments on behalf of the Swedish Government relating to the environment in Sweden, the EU and internationally
  8. Läkemedelsverket, The Swedish Medical Products Agency (MPA) is the Swedish national authority responsible for regulation and surveillance of the development, manufacturing and marketing of drugs and other medicinal products.
  9. FASS, The Swedish environmental classification of pharmaceuticals at www.fass.se has now been running since October 2005. Since then a large amount of environmental information of pharmaceuticals has been published.
  10. Janusinfo, Janusinfo is providing drug information to support healthcare professionals in their everyday work. The website is the electronic means of communication of the Drug Therapeutic Committee and the Health and Medical Care Administration of the Stockholm County Council, Sweden.