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Ofloxacin

Anti-Bacterial Agents
CATEGORIES

Anti-Bacterial Agents, Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors, Anti-Infective Agents, Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary, Quinolones


ALIASES

Floxal, Floxal EDO, Tarivid, Tarivid 200, Tarivid®, Ofloxacin Otic, Zanocin


SUBSTANCES

ofloxacin


ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN: HIGH
A synthetic fluoroquinolone (fluoroquinolones) antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA gyrase, halting DNA replication. [PubChem]

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HIGH

This substance is an antibiotic (also called, anti-bacterial agent). All antibiotics are suspected to cause antibiotic resistance and we should therefore try to limit releasing it to Nature via our wastewater streams.

Some key facts from WHO

  • Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest threats to global health. food security, and development today
  • Antibiotic resistance can affect anyone, of any age, in any country.
  • Antibiotic resistance occurs naturally, but misuse of antibiotics in humans and animals is accelerating the process.
  • A growing number of infections – such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, gonorrhoea, and salmonellosis – are becoming harder to treat as the antibiotics used to treat them become less effective.
  • Antibiotic resistance leads to longer hospital stays, higher medical costs and increased mortality.
Ofloxacin is a racemate. One of the enantiomers is levofloxacin (S-enantiomer). Therefore, see also environmental information for levofloxacin. In analyzes of ofloxacin in water both ofloxacin and levofloxacin are measured.

Previously, there was some risk for the selection of antibiotic resistant bacteria in wastewater treatment plants, but sales in Stockholm County have fallen sharply in recent years, and so the levels in wastewater have also decreased. At present only eye drops with ofloxacin have marketing authorisation.

Studies have shown that even low concentrations of antibiotics in the environment may trigger antibiotic resistance and should therefore be taken to ensure that as little as possible end up in our environment.

REFERENCES

  1. Goodpoint. Prioritering av läkemedel med miljörisk inom SLL. Stockholm: Goodpoint; 2016. Rapport LS 2016–0634.
  2. SLL. Sammanställning av läkemedelsprovtagningar - Bearbetning av regional försäljningsstatistik av läkemedel samt datamaterial från Stockholms läns landstings mätprogram för läkemedelssubstanser i vattenmiljö, 2012–2016.
  3. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. Fick J, Lindberg RH, Kaj L, Brorström-Lundén E. Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2010. Subreport 3, B 2014 Pharmaceuticals.
  4. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd Fick J, Lindberg RH, Fång J, Magnér J, Kaj L, Brorström-Lundén E. Screening 2014. Analysis of pharmaceuticals and hormones in samples from WWTPs and receiving waters. Rapport C 135.
  5. Fick J, Lindberg RH, Tysklind M, Larsson DG. Predicted critical environmental concentrations for 500 pharmaceuticals. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010;58:516-23.
  6. Bengtsson-Palme J, Larsson DG. Concentrations of antibiotics predicted to select for resistant bacteria: Proposed limits for environmental regulation. Environ Int. 2016;86:140-9.
  7. Backhaus T, Scholze M, Grimme LH. The single substance and mixture toxicity of quinolones to the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Aquat Toxicol. 2000;49:49-61.
  8. Gullberg E, Cao S, Berg OG, Ilbäck C, Sandegren L, Hughes D et al. Selection of resistant bacteria at very low antibiotic concentrations. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002158.