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Oxazepam

Anti-Anxiety Agents
CATEGORIES

Anti-Anxiety Agents, Hypnotics and Sedatives, GABA Modulators


ALIASES

Adumbran, Anxiolit , Durazepam, Nozepam, Oksazepam Belupo, Opamox, Oxa-CT, Oxabenz, Oxapax, Oxascand, Oxazepam 1A Pharma, Oxazepam AL, Oxazepam Accord, Oxazepam Alternova, Oxazepam Apotex, Oxazepam Aurobindo, Oxazepam CF, Oxazepam Desitin, Oxazepam Espefa, Oxazepam EuroGenerics, Oxazepam Farmaryn, Oxazepam GSK, Oxazepam GxMed Nordic, Oxazepam Hexal, Oxazepam K, Oxazepam LÉČIVA, Oxazepam Neuraxpharm, Oxazepam Riker, Oxazepam STADA, Oxazepam Sanol, Oxazepam TAD, Oxazepam TZF, Oxazepam Teva, Oxazepam Wolff, Praxiten , Serenal, Seresta, Serpax, Sobril


SUBSTANCES

oxazepam


ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN: HIGH
Oxazepam is an intermediate-acting benzodiazepine used to treat alcohol withdrawal and anxiety disorders. Oxazepam is also the metabolite of other benzodiazpines.

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VERIFIED EFFECT
HIGH

REFERENCES

  1. Baker, D.R., Kasprzyk-Hordern, B. (2011). Critical evaluation of methodology commonly used in sample collection, storage and preparation for the analysis of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in surface water and wastewater by solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A. 1218, 8036-8059.
  2. Baker, D.R., Kasprzyk-Hordern, B. (2011) Multi-residue analysis of drugs of abuse in wastewater and surface water by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography–positive electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A. 1218, 1620-1631.
  3. Baker, D.R., Kasprzyk-Hordern, B. (2011) Multi-residue determination of the sorption of illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals to wastewater suspended particulate matter using pressurised liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A. 1218, 7901-7913.
  4. Huerta-Fontela, M., Galceran, M.T., Ventura, F. (2010) Fast liquid chromatography–quadrupolelinear ion trap mass spectrometry for the analysis of pharmaceuticals and hormones in water resources. J. Chromatogr. A. 1217, 4212-4222.
  5. VA-Kluster Mälardalen: Public database of micro-pollutants for wastewater treatment plants
  6. Brodin, T., Piovano, S., Fick, J., Klaminder, J., Heynen, M., Jonsson, M. (2014), Ecological effects of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems—impacts through behavioural alterations, Royal Society B 369, 1656.
  7. Brodin, T., Fick J., Jonsson, M., Klaminder, J. (2013) Dilute Concentrations of a Psychiatric Drug Alter Behavior of Fish from Natural Populations. Science 339. 814-815.
  8. Klaminder, J., Brodin, T., Sundelin, A., Anderson, N. J., Fahlman, J., Jonsson, M., Fick J, (2015) Long-Term Persistence of an Anxiolytic Drug (Oxazepam) in a Large Freshwater Lake. Environ Sci Technol 49.
  9. Huerta, B., Margiotta‐Casaluci, L., Rodríguez‐Mozaz, S., Scholze, M., Winter, M.J., Barceló, D. and Sumpter, J.P. (2016), Anti‐anxiety drugs and fish behavior: Establishing the link between internal concentrations of oxazepam and behavioral effects. Environ Toxicol Chem, 35: 2782-2790.
  10. Brodin, T., Nordling, J., Lagesson, A., Klaminder, J., Hellström, G., Christensen, B., Fick, J. (2017) Environmental relevant levels of a benzodiazepine (oxazepam) alters important behavioral traits in a common planktivorous fish, (Rutilus rutilus), J Toxicol Env Heal A, 80:16-18, 963-970
  11. Goodpoint. Prioritering av läkemedel med miljörisk inom SLL. Stockholm: Goodpoint; 2016. Rapport LS 2016–0634.
  12. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. Fick J, Lindberg RH, Kaj L, Brorström-Lundén E. Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2010.
  13. Fick J, Lindberg RH, Tysklind M, Larsson DG. Predicted critical environmental concentrations for 500 pharmaceuticals. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010;58:516-23.
  14. SLL. Sammanställning av läkemedelsprovtagningar - Bearbetning av regional försäljningsstatistik av läkemedel samt datamaterial från Stockholms läns landstings mätprogram för läkemedelssubstanser i vattenmiljö, 2012–2016.
  15. Stockholms läns landsting. Förteckning över miljöbelastande läkemedel med åtgärdsförslag framtagen inom ramen för SLL:s miljöprogram 2017–2021.
  16. European Medical Agency - National registers of authorised medicines
  17. pCure Product Definition
  18. pCure Standard Dissolving Test

SOURCES

  1. Drugbank, The DrugBank database is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug data with comprehensive drug target information.
  2. PubChem, PubChem is the world's largest collection of freely accessible chemical information. Search chemicals by name, molecular formula, structure, and other identifiers
  3. ECHA, The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) is the driving force among regulatory authorities in implementing the EU's groundbreaking chemicals legislation for the benefit of human health and the environment as well as for innovation and competitiveness.
  4. EMA, The mission of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) is to foster scientific excellence in the evaluation and supervision of medicines, for the benefit of public and animal health in the European Union (EU).
  5. EU watch-list, Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2018/840 of 5 June 2018 establishing a watch list of substances for Union-wide monitoring in the field of water policy pursuant to Directive 2008/105/EC of the European Parliament.
  6. Umweltbundesamt, Since its founding in 1974, the German Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt – UBA) has been Germany’s main environmental protection agency.
  7. Naturvårdsverket, A public agency in Sweden that is responsible for environmental issues. The Agency carries out assignments on behalf of the Swedish Government relating to the environment in Sweden, the EU and internationally
  8. Läkemedelsverket, The Swedish Medical Products Agency (MPA) is the Swedish national authority responsible for regulation and surveillance of the development, manufacturing and marketing of drugs and other medicinal products.
  9. FASS, The Swedish environmental classification of pharmaceuticals at www.fass.se has now been running since October 2005. Since then a large amount of environmental information of pharmaceuticals has been published.
  10. Janusinfo, Janusinfo is providing drug information to support healthcare professionals in their everyday work. The website is the electronic means of communication of the Drug Therapeutic Committee and the Health and Medical Care Administration of the Stockholm County Council, Sweden.