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Oxytetracycline

Tetracyclines
CATEGORIES

Tetracyclines


ALIASES

Airikularum, Atecortin, Corti Biciron N, Engemycin, Geokorton, Geonistin, Oxycort, Oxymycin, Oxytetra-Mix, Oxytetracycline Augensalbe Jenapharm, Oxytetracycline Beral, Oxytetracycline Chevita, Oxytetracycline Jennapharm, Oxytetracycline-Prednisolo, Oxytetral, Posicycline, Sterdex, Terracort, Terracortril, Terracortril + Polymyxine B, Terramicina, Terramycin + Polymyxine B, Terricil, Tetran, Tetrasona, Trimovate, Unguentum Oxytetracyclini, Vanacyclin


SUBSTANCES

oxytetracycline, oxytetracycline calcium, oxytetracycline dihydrate, oxytetracycline hydrochloride


ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN: HIGH
A tetracycline analog isolated from the actinomycete streptomyces rimosus and used in a wide variety of clinical conditions. [PubChem]

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VERIFIED EFFECT
HIGH

This substance is an antibiotic (also called, anti-bacterial agent). All antibiotics are suspected to cause antibiotic resistance and we should therefore try to limit releasing it to Nature via our wastewater streams.

Some key facts from WHO

  • Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest threats to global health. food security, and development today
  • Antibiotic resistance can affect anyone, of any age, in any country.
  • Antibiotic resistance occurs naturally, but misuse of antibiotics in humans and animals is accelerating the process.
  • A growing number of infections – such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, gonorrhoea, and salmonellosis – are becoming harder to treat as the antibiotics used to treat them become less effective.
  • Antibiotic resistance leads to longer hospital stays, higher medical costs and increased mortality.

REFERENCES

  1. Gao, P., Y. Ding, H. Li and I. Xagoraraki (2012). Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in a municipal wastewater treatment plant: Mass balance and removal processes. Chemosphere 88, 17-24.
  2. Chang, X. S., M. T. Meyer, X. Y. Liu, Q. Zhao, H. Chen, J. A. Chen, Z. Q. Qiu, L. Yang, J. Cao and W. Q. Shu (2010), Determination of antibiotics in sewage from hospitals, nursery and slaughter house, wastewater treatment plant and source water in Chongqing region of Three Gorge Reservoir in China. Environ Pollut. 158, 1444-1450.
  3. Li, B. and T. Zhang (2011). Mass flows and removal of antibiotics in two municipal wastewater treatment plants, Chemosphere 83, 1284-1289
  4. Yang, L. , Ying, G. , Su, H. , Stauber, J. L., Adams, M. S. and Binet, M. T. (2008), Growth‐inhibiting effects of 12 antibacterial agents and their mixtures on the freshwater microalga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Environ Toxicol Chem, 27, 1201-1208
  5. Oliveira, R., McDonough, S., Ladewig, J., Soares, A., Nogueira, A., Domingues, I. (2013), Effects of oxytetracycline and amoxicillin on development and biomarkers activities of zebrafish (Danio rerio), Environ Toxicol Pharmacol, 36, 903-912,
  6. Ferreira, C., Nunes, B., de Melo Henriques-Almeida, J., Guilhermino, L., (2007), Acute toxicity of oxytetracycline and florfenicol to the microalgae Tetraselmis chuii and to the crustacean Artemia parthenogenetica, Ecotox Environ Safe,67, 452-458,
  7. European Medical Agency - National registers of authorised medicines
  8. pCure Product Definition
  9. pCure Standard Dissolving Test

SOURCES

  1. Drugbank, The DrugBank database is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug data with comprehensive drug target information.
  2. PubChem, PubChem is the world's largest collection of freely accessible chemical information. Search chemicals by name, molecular formula, structure, and other identifiers
  3. ECHA, The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) is the driving force among regulatory authorities in implementing the EU's groundbreaking chemicals legislation for the benefit of human health and the environment as well as for innovation and competitiveness.
  4. EMA, The mission of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) is to foster scientific excellence in the evaluation and supervision of medicines, for the benefit of public and animal health in the European Union (EU).
  5. EU watch-list, Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2018/840 of 5 June 2018 establishing a watch list of substances for Union-wide monitoring in the field of water policy pursuant to Directive 2008/105/EC of the European Parliament.
  6. Umweltbundesamt, Since its founding in 1974, the German Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt – UBA) has been Germany’s main environmental protection agency.
  7. Naturvårdsverket, A public agency in Sweden that is responsible for environmental issues. The Agency carries out assignments on behalf of the Swedish Government relating to the environment in Sweden, the EU and internationally
  8. Läkemedelsverket, The Swedish Medical Products Agency (MPA) is the Swedish national authority responsible for regulation and surveillance of the development, manufacturing and marketing of drugs and other medicinal products.
  9. FASS, The Swedish environmental classification of pharmaceuticals at www.fass.se has now been running since October 2005. Since then a large amount of environmental information of pharmaceuticals has been published.
  10. Janusinfo, Janusinfo is providing drug information to support healthcare professionals in their everyday work. The website is the electronic means of communication of the Drug Therapeutic Committee and the Health and Medical Care Administration of the Stockholm County Council, Sweden.