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Sulfamethoxazole

Anti-Infective Agents
CATEGORIES

Anti-Infective Agents, Sulfonamides


ALIASES

Bactrim, Bactrimel, Balsotrim, Berlocid, Biseptol, Broncovir, Bronquidiazina, Co-Trimoxazole, Cotrim, Cotrim-CT, Cotrim-K, Cotrimoxazole, Cotripharm, Deprim, Eusaprim , Fectrim, Kepinol, Primotren, Rokiprim, Septrin, Soltrim, Sulotrim, Sumetrolim, Synoprim, TMS, Trimesolphar


ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN: HIGH
A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)

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VERIFIED EFFECT
HIGH

This substance is an antibiotic (also called, anti-bacterial agent). All antibiotics are suspected to cause antibiotic resistance and we should therefore try to limit releasing it to Nature via our wastewater streams.

Some key facts from WHO

  • Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest threats to global health. food security, and development today
  • Antibiotic resistance can affect anyone, of any age, in any country.
  • Antibiotic resistance occurs naturally, but misuse of antibiotics in humans and animals is accelerating the process.
  • A growing number of infections – such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, gonorrhoea, and salmonellosis – are becoming harder to treat as the antibiotics used to treat them become less effective.
  • Antibiotic resistance leads to longer hospital stays, higher medical costs and increased mortality.

REFERENCES

  1. Gao, P., Y. Ding, H. Li and I. Xagoraraki (2012). Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in a municipal wastewater treatment plant: Mass balance and removal processes. Chemosphere 88, 17-24.
  2. Yang, X., R. C. Flowers, H. S. Weinberg and P. C. Singer (2011). Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in an advanced wastewater reclamation plant. Water Res. Vol 45, 5218-5228.
  3. Verlicchi, P., M. Al Aukidy, A. Galletti, M. Petrovic and D. Barceló (2012). Hospital effluent: Investigation of the concentrations and distribution of pharmaceuticals and environmental risk assessment. Sci. Total. Environ. 430, 109-118.
  4. Santos, L. H. M. L. M., M. Gros, S. Rodriguez-Mozaz, C. Delerue-Matos, A. Pena, D. Barcelóand M. C. B. S. M. Montenegro (2013). "Contribution of hospital effluents to the load of pharmaceuticals in urban wastewaters: Identification of ecologically relevant pharmaceuticals." Science of The Total Environment 461–462 (0): 302-316.
  5. Kosma, C. I., D. A. Lambropoulou and T. A. Albanis (2014). Investigation of PPCPs in wastewater treatment plants in Greece: Occurrence, removal and environmental risk assessment. Sci. Total. Environ. 466–467, 421-438.
  6. Gros, M., S. Rodríguez-Mozaz and D. Barceló (2013). "Rapid analysis of multiclass antibiotic residues and some of their metabolites in hospital, urban wastewater and river water by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry." Journal of Chromatography A in press.
  7. Du, B., A. E. Price, W. C. Scott, L. A. Kristofco, A. J. Ramirez, C. K. Chambliss, J. C. Yelderman and B. W. Brooks (2014) “Comparison of contaminants of emerging concern removal, discharge, and water quality hazards among centralized and on-site wastewater treatment system effluents receiving common wastewater influent”. Sci. Total. Environ. 466–467, 976-984.
  8. Conkle, J. L., J. R. White and C. D. “Reduction of pharmaceutically active compounds by a lagoon wetland wastewater treatment system in Southeast Louisiana” Chemosphere 73, 1741-1748.
  9. Yang, S., Cha, J., and Carlson, K., (2005) “Simultaneous extraction and analysis of 11 tetracycline and sulfonamide antibiotics in influent and effluent domestic wastewater by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1097, 40-53.
  10. Alexy, R., A. Sommer, F. T. Lange, Kümmerer, K., (2006). "Local use of antibiotics and their input and fate in a small sewage treatment plant – significance of balancing and analysis on a local scale vs. nationwide scale." Acta Hydrochim. Hydrobiol. 34, 587-592
  11. Teijon, G., L. Candela, K. Tamoh, A. Molina-Díaz and A. R. Fernández-Alba (2010). "Occurrence of emerging contaminants, priority substances (2008/105/CE) and heavy metals in treated wastewater and groundwater at epurbaix facility (Barcelona, Spain)." Sci. Total Environ 408, 3584-3595
  12. Pedrouzo, M., F. Borrull, E. Pocurull and R. Marcé (2011). Presence of Pharmaceuticals and Hormones in Waters from Sewage Treatment Plants. Wate.r Air. Soil. Pollut. 217, 267-281.
  13. Senta, I., Terzic, S., Ahel, M., (2013) “Occurrence and fate of dissolved and particulate antimicrobials in municipal wastewater treatment” Water Research 47, 705-714,
  14. Queiroz, F. B., Brandt, E. M. F., Aquino, S. F., Chernicharo, C. A. L., Afonso, R. J. C. F., (2012). "Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors in raw sewage and their behavior in UASB reactors operated at different hydraulic retention times." Water Sci Technol 66, 2562–2569.
  15. Brandt, E. M. F., de Queiroz, F. B., Afonso, R. J. C. F., Aquino, S. F., Chernicharo, C. A. L., (2013) "Behaviour of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting chemicals in simplified sewage treatment systems." J Environ Manage 128, 718-726.
  16. Behera, S. K., Kim, H. W. , Oh. J.-E., Park. H.-S. , (2011) "Occurrence and removal of antibiotics, hormones and several other pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment plants of the largest industrial city of Korea." Sci. Total Environ. 409, 4351-4360
  17. Demoling, A. L., Bååth, E., Greve, G., Wouterse, M., Schmitt, H., (2009) “Effects of sulfamethoxazole on soil microbial communities after adding substrate” Soil Biol Biochem 41, 840-848,
  18. Underwood, C. J., Harvey, W. R., Metge, W. D., Repert, A. D., Baumgartner, K. L., Smith, L. R., Roane, M. T., Barber B. L., (2011), “Effects of the Antimicrobial Sulfamethoxazole on Groundwater Bacterial Enrichment” Environ. Sci. Technol. 45, 3096-3101
  19. European Medical Agency - National registers of authorised medicines
  20. pCure Product Definition
  21. pCure Standard Dissolving Test

SOURCES

  1. Drugbank, The DrugBank database is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug data with comprehensive drug target information.
  2. PubChem, PubChem is the world's largest collection of freely accessible chemical information. Search chemicals by name, molecular formula, structure, and other identifiers
  3. ECHA, The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) is the driving force among regulatory authorities in implementing the EU's groundbreaking chemicals legislation for the benefit of human health and the environment as well as for innovation and competitiveness.
  4. EMA, The mission of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) is to foster scientific excellence in the evaluation and supervision of medicines, for the benefit of public and animal health in the European Union (EU).
  5. EU watch-list, Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2018/840 of 5 June 2018 establishing a watch list of substances for Union-wide monitoring in the field of water policy pursuant to Directive 2008/105/EC of the European Parliament.
  6. Umweltbundesamt, Since its founding in 1974, the German Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt – UBA) has been Germany’s main environmental protection agency.
  7. Naturvårdsverket, A public agency in Sweden that is responsible for environmental issues. The Agency carries out assignments on behalf of the Swedish Government relating to the environment in Sweden, the EU and internationally
  8. Läkemedelsverket, The Swedish Medical Products Agency (MPA) is the Swedish national authority responsible for regulation and surveillance of the development, manufacturing and marketing of drugs and other medicinal products.
  9. FASS, The Swedish environmental classification of pharmaceuticals at www.fass.se has now been running since October 2005. Since then a large amount of environmental information of pharmaceuticals has been published.
  10. Janusinfo, Janusinfo is providing drug information to support healthcare professionals in their everyday work. The website is the electronic means of communication of the Drug Therapeutic Committee and the Health and Medical Care Administration of the Stockholm County Council, Sweden.