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Tetracycline

Anti-Bacterial Agents
CATEGORIES

Anti-Bacterial Agents, Protein Synthesis Inhibitors, Antiprotozoal Agents, Tetracyclines


ALIASES

Alfaflor, Ambramicina, Anestesia Topica B. Braun, Anucet, Apocycclin, Bisolvomycin, Colircusi Anestetico, Drill, Economycin, Epicutantest, Hemofissural, Imex, Lubristesi, Muvito, Mysteclin, Mysteclin Dermapharm, Mysteclin Genitalcreme, Nizfarm, Noacne, Nuvachten Depot, Oricyclin, Oxoferin, Pliaglis, Pylera, Rapydan, Resoborina Solucion, Tefilin, Terricil, Tetracycline ATB, Tetracycline Actavis, Tetracycline Arena, Tetracycline Lainco, Tetracycline Nizfarm, Tetracycline Vision, Tetracycline Wolff, Tetracykline Meda, Tetralysal, Vinciseptil


SUBSTANCES

tetracycline, tetracycline hydrochloride


ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN: HIGH
Tetracycline is a broad spectrum polyketide antibiotic produced by the Streptomyces genus of Actinobacteria. It exerts a bacteriostatic effect on bacteria by binding reversible to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit and blocking incoming aminoacyl tRNA from binding to the ribosome acceptor site. It also binds to some extent to the bacterial 50S ribosomal subunit and may alter the cytoplasmic membrane causing intracellular components to leak from bacterial cells.

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VERIFIED EFFECT
HIGH

This substance is an antibiotic (also called, anti-bacterial agent). All antibiotics are suspected to cause antibiotic resistance and we should therefore try to limit releasing it to Nature via our wastewater streams.

Some key facts from WHO

  • Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest threats to global health. food security, and development today
  • Antibiotic resistance can affect anyone, of any age, in any country.
  • Antibiotic resistance occurs naturally, but misuse of antibiotics in humans and animals is accelerating the process.
  • A growing number of infections – such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, gonorrhoea, and salmonellosis – are becoming harder to treat as the antibiotics used to treat them become less effective.
  • Antibiotic resistance leads to longer hospital stays, higher medical costs and increased mortality.

REFERENCES

  1. Gao, P., Y. Ding, H. Li and I. Xagoraraki (2012). Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in a municipal wastewater treatment plant: Mass balance and removal processes. Chemosphere 88, 17-24.l
  2. Yang, S., Cha, J., and Carlson, K., (2005). Simultaneous extraction and analysis of 11 tetracycline and sulfonamide antibiotics in influent and effluent domestic wastewater by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1097, 40-53.
  3. Yang, X., R. C. Flowers, H. S. Weinberg and P. C. Singer (2011). Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in an advanced wastewater reclamation plant. Water Res 45, 5218-5228.
  4. Sungpyo, K., Aga, D., (2007), Potential Ecological and Human Health Impacts of Antibiotics and Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria from Wastewater Treatment Plants, Toxicol. Environ. Health Part B, 559-573
  5. Nunes, B., Antunes, S.C., Gomes, R. Campos, J., Braga, M., Ramos A, Correia, A., (2015), Acute Effects of Tetracycline Exposure in the Freshwater Fish Gambusia holbrooki: Antioxidant Effects, Neurotoxicity and Histological Alterations, Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 68, 371
  6. Zhang, Q., Cheng, J. & Xin, Q. (2015), Effects of tetracycline on developmental toxicity and molecular responses in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos, Ecotoxicology 24, 707.
  7. Yang, L. , Ying, G. , Su, H. , Stauber, J. L., Adams, M. S. and Binet, M. T. (2008), Growth‐inhibiting effects of 12 antibacterial agents and their mixtures on the freshwater microalga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Environ Toxicol Chem 27, 1201-1208
  8. Goodpoint. Prioritering av läkemedel med miljörisk inom SLL. Stockholm: Goodpoint; 2016. Rapport LS 2016–0634.
  9. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. Fick J, Lindberg RH, Kaj L, Brorström-Lundén E. Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2010. Subreport 3. Pharmaceuticals.
  10. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd Fick J, Lindberg RH, Fång J, Magnér J, Kaj L, Brorström-Lundén E. Screening 2014. Analysis of pharmaceuticals and hormones in samples from WWTPs and receiving waters. Rapport C 135.
  11. Backhaus T, Froehner K, Altenburger R, Grimme LH. Toxicity testing with Vibrio Fischeri: A comparison between the long term (24 h) and the short term (30 min) bioassay. Chemosphere. 1997;35(12):2925-2938.
  12. Bengtsson-Palme J, Larsson DG. Concentrations of antibiotics predicted to select for resistant bacteria: Proposed limits for environmental regulation. Environ Int. 2016;86:140-9.
  13. Gullberg E, Cao S, Berg OG, Ilbäck C, Sandegren L, Hughes D et al. Selection of resistant bacteria at very low antibiotic concentrations. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002158.
  14. SLL. Sammanställning av läkemedelsprovtagningar - Bearbetning av regional försäljningsstatistik av läkemedel samt datamaterial från Stockholms läns landstings mätprogram för läkemedelssubstanser i vattenmiljö, 2012–2016.
  15. Stockholms läns landsting. Förteckning över miljöbelastande läkemedel med åtgärdsförslag framtagen inom ramen för SLL:s miljöprogram 2017–2021.
  16. Goodpoint. Jämförande bedömning av miljörisk och risk för resistensselektion vid human användning av ivermektin, metronidazol, lymecyklin och azelinsyra. Stockholm: Goodpoint; 2018.
  17. European Medical Agency - National registers of authorised medicines
  18. pCure Product Definition
  19. pCure Standard Dissolving Test

SOURCES

  1. Drugbank, The DrugBank database is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug data with comprehensive drug target information.
  2. PubChem, PubChem is the world's largest collection of freely accessible chemical information. Search chemicals by name, molecular formula, structure, and other identifiers
  3. ECHA, The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) is the driving force among regulatory authorities in implementing the EU's groundbreaking chemicals legislation for the benefit of human health and the environment as well as for innovation and competitiveness.
  4. EMA, The mission of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) is to foster scientific excellence in the evaluation and supervision of medicines, for the benefit of public and animal health in the European Union (EU).
  5. EU watch-list, Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2018/840 of 5 June 2018 establishing a watch list of substances for Union-wide monitoring in the field of water policy pursuant to Directive 2008/105/EC of the European Parliament.
  6. Umweltbundesamt, Since its founding in 1974, the German Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt – UBA) has been Germany’s main environmental protection agency.
  7. Naturvårdsverket, A public agency in Sweden that is responsible for environmental issues. The Agency carries out assignments on behalf of the Swedish Government relating to the environment in Sweden, the EU and internationally
  8. Läkemedelsverket, The Swedish Medical Products Agency (MPA) is the Swedish national authority responsible for regulation and surveillance of the development, manufacturing and marketing of drugs and other medicinal products.
  9. FASS, The Swedish environmental classification of pharmaceuticals at www.fass.se has now been running since October 2005. Since then a large amount of environmental information of pharmaceuticals has been published.
  10. Janusinfo, Janusinfo is providing drug information to support healthcare professionals in their everyday work. The website is the electronic means of communication of the Drug Therapeutic Committee and the Health and Medical Care Administration of the Stockholm County Council, Sweden.